Integrating with testing frameworks is achieved by processing the results contained in the reports test runners create (e.g. in XML, JSON). The results are mapped to the proper Test issues and, if possible, if they don't exist then they will be created. This flow is explained in Using Generic Tests for Automation, although Xray also supports Cucumber tests natively.
Besides Cucumber, there are currently many testing frameworks available for every language you may think of.
Many of these frameworks provide test runners that are able to output reports in the JUnit XML format. Therefore, in the "worst case" your automated tests can be imported to JIRA and mapped to "Generic" Test issues, by importing JUnit XML test result reports as detailed here. Note that JUnit report format is rather limited and sometimes it's not supported by some testing frameworks.
Another way of integrating with testing frameworks is by using the test runner Nunit's XML report format. Nunit report format has more features than JUnit 4.0 XML report, which allows Xray to do things such as automatic linking to issues (e.g. requirements) or assignment of labels to the newly created Test entities.
Besides this, Xray also provides specific integrations for some frameworks, such as Cucumber, Behave, Robot, Xamarin, and other.
Integration by platform
Integration by testing framework report
Testing by target environment
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